CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS
Women in Combat Roles (WICR) Data Project (lead PI)
Our principal objective is to provide members of the defense and academic communities with an understanding of how the integration of female combatants affects the readiness and capabilities of armed forces, and by extension the conduct of international and civil wars. To that end, we are developing two data sets on women’s combat roles covering the years 1914 to 2015. The National Militaries data set (WICR-NM) codes the percentage of the armed forces that is female, how women are recruited, whether women engage in active combat, and whether women operate in single or mixed-sex units. The Intra-State Conflict Armed Groups data set (WICR-ISCAG) codes the same variables for insurgent groups and other non-state actors fighting in civil wars and insurgencies.
Financing Repression: Foreign Assistance, Coercive Capacity and Patterns of State Violence
This study examines the effects of US bilateral foreign aid policy on the internal security dynamics of aid recipient states. I draw upon the international security and contentious politics literatures to develop a theory of the coercive effect of foreign aid. I analyze how US foreign assistance affects the state capacity of recipient countries and, as a consequence, the government’s ability to employ violence as a tool for ensuring its continued tenure. I argue that as a consequence of fungibility—the ability to use foreign aid as a general government resource—foreign aid may increase the likelihood of state coercion by funding increases in the state’s coercive capacity, including changes in military expenditure, force structure and arms acquisitions.
I test this argument through a statistical analysis of a cross-sectional time-series dataset of annual US bilateral foreign aid for 132 developing countries during the period of 1976 to 2005. This analysis is complemented by an in-depth case study of Indonesia and shorter analyses of El Salvador and South Korea. I find that the coercive effect of foreign aid is conditioned by the recipient country’s political institutions and conflict history. This research links the study of political violence with the changing nature of international relations and provides considerable insight into international influences on intrastate conflict. The research further suggests that foreign aid undermines aid donor goals by creating conditions propitious to increased political violence in recipient countries.
Fighting for the Heart of Borneo: Ethnic Violence and Nation-Building in Malaysia and Indonesia
Chapter: "Security through Schools: Education and Political Loyalty in British Borneo, 1945-1960" presented at the 2015 International Studies Association Conference.
This study addresses the role of ethnic conflict in post-colonial nation-state building through a comparative case study of Indonesian Borneo and Malaysian Borneo. We address an important puzzle in the history of political violence in the region: why did violent ethnic tensions emerge in Kalimantan (Indonesia) while Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia) have avoided such conflict? The island of Borneo is a unique environment in which to study political violence as the peoples and territory of Borneo are divided between the states of Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia as well as by regional borders within the latter two countries. These divisions resulted from the colonization of the island by the British and Dutch, as well as state policies in the post-independence period. The emergence of ethnic violence on Borneo is surprising given that both Malaysia and Indonesia had the resources to create viable and inclusive nation-states on their territory in the post-independence period. The objective of this study is therefore to examine the interaction between colonial and post-colonial state- and nation-building with the type and level of ethnic violence on Borneo.
"Aid, Arms and Atrocities: Lessons from Foreign Assistance to Indonesia, 1949-2010"
The Indonesian armed forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI) have traditionally been seen as a central part of the political process and a guarantor of internal stability. This paper argues that the interaction between the TNI’s expansion and increasing foreign assistance under Sukarno and during the early years of the Suharto administration had major implications for the future exercise of violence by the TNI. Using archival material and data on aid and arms transfers, I document the close connection between bilateral foreign assistance and state violence against civilians throughout post-independence Indonesian history. In particular, I demonstrate how foreign aid was instrumental not only in the invasion and occupation of East Timor, but how foreign assistance affected the nature of state-society relations throughout the archipelago by supporting state coercion. Despite constraints imposed by Congress and the oil crises, the sustained level of both military and economic aid provided by the United States to Indonesia created an enduring capacity for violence in the inward-oriented TNI, which in turn allowed the central government to consistently use violence as a tool of governance.